Updated: September 26, 2020
by Carol L. Robinson
This page has been built to fuel constructive approaches for teaching about and fighting racism in medieval studies. Inspiration for the development of this lesson page comes from recent events in the academic world. There is a rift growing among medieval scholars and scholars of medievalism, as the below materials demonstrate. While this rift has been developing for quite some time, with periodic rumblings of small-scale quakes, in recent years, these rumblings have grown louder, and this year the quakes have shaken the very foundation of the academy, as the below letters and petitions attest. Scholars who have questioned and fought against racist views and racist portrayals of medieval history and literature have risked and received both public and private attacks. Such attacks have often been malicious and have ranged from being highly unprofessional to extremely personal (including doxxing and trolling), and these attacks have come from non-academic individuals, as well as fellow scholars who have reacted strongly against attempts at fighting racist thinking within the medieval academy.
INVITATION: If you would like to add to this page, or if anyone or anything is missing from this page, please contact me (email@example.com).
Contributors & Consultants (people who have made suggestions or shared information to the building of this page, in alphabetical order): Pamela Clements, Jeffery J. Cohen, Jonathan Hsy, Eileen A. Fradenburg Joy, Dorothy Kim, Sierra Lomuto, Martha Oberle, Julie Orlemanski, Martin B. Shichtman, Gale Sigal, Deborah M. Sinnreich-Levi, Richard Utz, and Helen Young. Please let me know if I’ve left anyone out of the list and accept my apologies!
SOURCES FOR CONTEXT
Information that might fuel deeper discussion.
- Medieval Context
- Medieval Jewish Perspectives on Human Rights, Duke University
- Medieval Concept of Human Rights, The National Archives (UK)
- Did This Medieval Medieval African Empire Invent Human Rights? by Philip Perry (January 22, 2017)
- The Medieval Law School, Robbins Collection, UC Berkeley School of Law
- Fundamental Human Rights in Medieval Law by Richard H. Helmholz, The Maurice and Muriel Fulton Lectures, University of Chicago Law School: Chicago Unbound (2001)
- Medievalists of Color
- Modern Context
- Lost in Our Field: Racism and the International Congress on Medieval Studies by Nahir I. Otaño Gracia (July 24, 2018)
- Why the History of Medieval Studies Haunts How We Study the Past by Matthew Gabriele (Forbes, July 14, 2018)
- Who Owns the Vikings? Pagans, Neo-Nazis and Advertisers Tussle Over Symbols by Richard Martyn-Hemphill and Henrik Pryser Libell (March 17, 2018)
- How ‘Hobbit Camps’ Rebirthed Italian Facism by John Last (October 3, 2017)
- A Continent among Continents: European History Today by Tyler Stovall, Perspectives on History: The Newsmagazine of the American Historical Association (September, 2017)
- My Year Inside the International Alt-Right by Patrik Hermansson, Hope not Hate (September 2017)
- The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- Online Harassment Information for Universities
- General Context
- ATTN: Video—This professor is playing a voice message to highlight the prevalence of racism in America by Jason Nichols Facebook (October 12, 2017)
- Human Rights, Encyclopedia Britannica
- The “Two Bads” Fallacy & Racism by Michael LaBossiere, A Philosopher’s Blog (June 24, 2015)
- Logical Fallacies Handlist by L. Kip Wheeler, Dr. Wheeler’s Website
Some Letters, Declarations and Petitions
There has been (and continues to be) a rift in medieval scholarship over what defines “racism” and who is being racists, as the below materials demonstrate. Additionally, the below letters, declarations, and petitions demonstrate how this racism has fueled actions of hatred, as well as responses to those actions. These have been organized in publication order. For now, links to actually racist letters, articles and other posts have not been included, although several of the works listed below do provide direct links to these hateful writings. “Recent” has been limited to this year (2017).
- Stop the Alt Right Libel Campaign Against Stockton University Professor Adam Miyashiro
- Statement of Commitment, from Some Medievalists at the University of Chicago
- Medieval Academy of America Amended Values Statement (September 18, 2017)
- Letter from the Medieval Academy of America to Professor Dorothy Kim (September 18, 2017)
- Statement Concerning Civility, Scholarship, and Pedagogy, TEAMS Teaching Association for Medieval Studies (September 18, 2017)
- NCS Statement About Public Discourse and Civility, The New Chaucer Society (September 18, 2017)
- Statement of Solidarity, International Society for the Study of Medievalism (September 18, 2017)
- Regarding Intellectual Freedom, Office of the President, Vassar (September 17, 2017)
- Response to recent acts of white supremacism, Canadian Society of Medievalists (September 17, 2017)
- An Open Letter to the Department of History, University of Chicago
- IPPS statement in support of Dorothy Kim (Piers Plowman Society)
- Solidarity with Our Jewish Colleagues (Medievalists of Color)
- In Support of Dr. Dorothy Kim by David M. Perry, How did we get into this mess? (September 16, 2017)
- On Race and Medieval Studies A Collective Statement by Medievalists of Color (August 1, 2017)
- President’s Letters to Leeds IMC Re. Diversity and Inclusivity by Liz Herbert McAvoy, Society for Medieval Feminist Scholarship (July 18, 2017 & July 31, 2017)
- “Otherness” at IMC in Leeds: An Open Letter (July, 2017)
SOURCES FOR TEACHING
Articles on Lessons and Other Teaching Approaches, Published in The Once and Future Classroom: Resources for Teaching the Middle Ages — and stay tuned for the forthcoming Special Issue on Teaching Medieval Arabic Studies!
- Race in Medieval Romances with Dr. Sierra Lomuto (Knight School Podcast Episode)
- History Bites: Resources on the Problematic Term “Anglo-Saxon” by M. Rambaran-Olm (September 7, 2020)
- White Supremacy and Medieval Studies: A Lesson Plan by M.W. Bychowski (November 11, 2017)
- Race and Ethnicity: Saracens and Jews in Middle English Literature by Ashley R. Conklin (Spring 2017)
- Canterbury Trails: Walking with Immigrants, Refugees and the Man of Law by Pamela Troyer (Spring 2017)
- Robbing the Saracen to Create the Englishman: Islam and Muslims in Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves by Meriem Pages (Fall 2010)
- Library Resources: The Crusades—An Annotated Bibliography for Teachers by Leila K. Norako (Fall 2007)
- Maldon, Gettysburg, and the Somme: Tolkien’s Homecoming and the Idea of Chivalry by John W. Houghton (Spring 2005)
Selected List of Texts to Teach — TEAMS: Teaching Association for Medieval Studies
- Croxton Play of the Sacrament. Ed. John Sebastian — Surviving in a single sixteenth-century copy, this text dramatizes the physical abuse by five Muhammad-worshipping Syrian Jews of a Host, the bread consecrated by a priest during the Christian Mass. The text is the work of a playwright possessed of a tremendous theatrical imagination, notwithstanding his choice of subject matter.
- The King of Tars. Ed. John H. Chandler — An early Middle English romance (ca. 1330 or earlier), this text emphasizes ideas about race, gender, and religion. A short poem, its purpose is to celebrate the power of Christianity, and yet it defies classification.
- Richard Coer de Lion. Ed. Peter Larkin. Trans. Katherine Terrell — One of the most engaging Middle English crusading poems, Richard Coer de Lyon recounts in verse the exploits, both historical and fanciful, of Richard I, king of England. While Richard’s participation in the Third Crusade serves as its main subject, the poem disrupts its historical narrative with a number of fabulous interpolations, two of which are particularly notorious: the depiction of Richard’s mother as a demon, and the portrayal of the king himself as a voracious cannibal.
- Siege of Jerusalem. Ed. Michael Livingston. Trans. Adrienne Williams Boyarin — The fourteenth-century Siege of Jerusalem has been called by Ralph Hanna “the chocolate-covered tarantula of the alliterative movement” for its apparent anti-Semitism and is, as Livingston notes in his introduction, “simply difficult for twenty-first-century readers to like.” The poem, which describes the destruction of the Second Temple by Roman forces in AD 70, is graphic in detail and unpleasant in its relish of the suffering of the Jews. But as Livingston points out, “Like the gritty violence of Alliterative Morte Arthure, the gore in Siege is perhaps best read as a grim awareness of the terrible realities of war, not as a bloodthirsty and berserk cry for further bloodshed. . . . That the poem is a call to action and to crusade, then, seems to be a claim that is far less sustainable than its opposite: a call to peace and to remembrance.”
- Three Middle English Charlemagne Romances. Ed. Alan Lupack — This volume serves as an excellent introduction to the tradition of romances dealing with the matter of France—that is, Charlemagne and his Twelve Peers. Of the three groups of English Charlemagne romances, the Ferumbras group, the Otuel group, and “detached romances,” the editor has selected one of each: The Sultan of Babylon, The Siege of Milan, and The Tale of Ralph the Collier. This is a valuable introduction to Charlemagne romances and is accessible to beginners in Middle English because of contextualizing introductions and glosses for each text, as well as a helpful glossary.
SOURCES FOR SCHOLARSHIP
Continually Updated Resources
- Race and Medieval Studies: A Partial Bibliography — This is an absolutely wonderful Google document started by Jonathan Hsy and Julie Orlemanski. It is becoming fairly comprehensive, and is still developing; click on the link to both read and contribute! NOTE: Some of the bibliographic information on these sites is inaccurate; please do not expect this document to either be a final product or a fully edited/corrected work.
- People of Color in European Art History
Because you wouldn’t want to be historically inaccurate. — This is a Tumblr site that is constantly updated with images, such as the one to the right of this text.
- Black Central Europe: 1100-1500 — “What were Black experiences in Europe like
before the arrival of the transatlantic slave trade? How did medieval Europeans view the continent of Africa? Where did the black St. Maurice and the Black Magus come from, and why have they persisted into the present? Discover the travels and lives of Africans in German-speaking Europe as they interacted with painters, writers, emperors, and priests. Often labeled as “Moors,” many Black figures stood at the intersection between religion (Islam and Christianity) and culture. Coming from “exotic” lands full of riches and the promises of new alliances, the Moor in the European imagination symbolized the ambitions of Christian universalism and the expansion of European empires.“
- Medieval Pedagogical Writings: An Epitome. Sarah B. Lynch. Kismet Press, 2018.
- “Race.” Jeffrey J. Cohen. A Handbook of Middle English Studies. Ed. Marion Turner. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell, 2013: 109-122.
- England’s Immigrants, 1330-1550: Resident Aliens in the Middle Ages — “England’s Immigrants 1330-1550 is a major research project funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, which has run between February 2012 and February 2015. We are exploring the extensive archival evidence about the names, origins, occupations and households of a significant number of foreigners who chose to make their lives and livelihoods in England in the era of the Hundred Years War, the Black Death and the Wars of the Roses. The project contributes creatively to the longer-term history of immigration to England, and helps to provide a deep historical and cultural context to contemporary debates over ethnicity, multiculturalism and national identity.”
- Internet Medieval Sourcebook (Paul Halsal, Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies) — This was last edited in 2011.
Recent Peer Reviewed Articles and Books
This is a developing list of works not featured in one of the journal or blog publications listed further below, organized in publication order. “Recent” has been limited to five years ago or sooner (2013-2017), including recent reprints. For a significantly more comprehensive list, see Julie Orlemanski and Jonthan Hsy’s Race and Medieval Studies: A Partial Bibliography.
- The Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages (Geraldine Heng, Cambridge U P, 2018)
- “Revising Race in Laʒamon’s Brut.” Jonathan Davis-Secord. Journal of English and Germanic Philology. 116.2 (April 2017): 156-181.
- “Robes, Turbans, and Beards: ‘Ethnic Passing’ in Decameron X.9.” Ana Grinberg. Medieval Clothing and Textiles 13. Eds. Robin Netherton and Gale R. Owen-Crocker. (2017): 67-81.
- The Place of the Social Margins, 1350-1750. Eds. Andrew Spicer and Jane L Crashaw. New York: Routledge, 2017.
- Representing Difference in the Medieval and Modern Orientalist Romance. Amy Burge. New York: Palgrave, 2016.
- Chapter 2: An Alien Presence: Giants as Markers of Race, Class, and Culture.” Sylvia Huot. Outsiders: The Humanity and Inhumanity of Giants in Medieval French Prose Romance. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2016.
- Christians and Jews in Medieval England: The York Massacre of 1190, Narratives and Contexts. Eds. Sarah Rees Jones and Sethina Watson. Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2013, 2016.
- “The Color of Money: The BBC’s ‘Sea Captain’s Tale.'” Kathleen Coyne Kelly. Chaucer on Screen: Absence, Presence, and Adapting The Canterbury Tales. Eds. Kathleen Coyne Kelly and Tison Pugh. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 2016: 218-229.
- The Mediterranean World: From the Fall of Rome to the Rise of Napoleon. Monique O’Connell and Eric R. Dursteler. Baltimore: Johs Hopkins University Press, 2016.
- Race and Popular Fantasy Literature: Habits of Whiteness. Helen Young. New York: Routledge, 2016.
- Race and Popular Fantasy Literature: Habits of Whiteness (Helen Young, Routledge, 2015)
- “An African Saint in Medieval Europe: The Black Saint Maurice and the Enigma of Racial Sanctity.” Geraldine Heng. Sainthood and Race: Marked Flesh, Holy Flesh. Eds. Molly H. Bassett and Vincent W. Lloyd. New York: Routledge, 2015: 18-44.
- Racisms: From the Crusades to the Twentieth Century. Francisco Bethencourt. Reprint. Princeton University Press, 2015.
- “What if your future was the past?”: Temporality, Gender, and the “Isms” of Outlander by Leah Haught, The Year’s Work in Medievalism (2015)
- Is pre-Columbian America Medieval?: Indigenous Absence in American Medievalisms by Michael R. Evans, The Year’s Work in Medievalism (2015)
- “Reinventing Race, Colonization, and Globalisms across Deep Time: Lessons from the Longue Durée.” Geraldine Heng. PMLA 130.2 (March 2015): 358-66.
- “Reframing Race and Jewish/Christian Relations in the Middle Ages.” Dorothy Kim. Transversal. 13.1 (2015): 52-64.
- “Translation Failure: The TARDIS, Cross-Temporal Language Contact, and Medieval Travel Narrative.” Jonathan Hsy. The Language of Doctor Who: From Shakespeare to Alien Tongues. Eds. Jason Barr and Camille D.G. Mustachio. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2014: 109-123.
- In Light of Another’s Word: European Ethnography in the Middle Ages. Shirin Khanmohamadi. Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014.
- “Saracens and Race in Roman de la Rose Iconography: The case of Dangier in Bodleian Douce 195.” Nadia Altschul. Digital Philology 2.1 (2013): 1-15.
- “Excavating the Borders of Literary Anglo-Saxonism in Nineteenth-Century Britain and Australia.” Louise D’Arcens and Chris Jones. Representations. 121.1 (Winter 2013): 85-106.
- “Chapter 4: The Canterbury Pilgrimage and African Diaspora.” Katheen Forni. Chaucer’s Afterlife: Adaptations in Recent Popular Culture. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2013.
- Embracing Our Marginalism: Mitigating the Tyranny of a Central Paradigm by Karl Fugelso, The Year’s Work in Medievalism (2013)
- Trading Tongues: Merchants, Multilingualism, and Medieval Literature. Jonathan Hsy. Interventions: New Studies in Medieval Culture. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 2013.
- “The Jewish Body in Black and White in Medieval and Early Modern England.” Lindsay M. Kaplan. Philological Quarterly 92.1 (2013): 41-65.
- The Quest for a Deaf Lesbian Dwarf (or Anyone Else that Might Have Been Excluded) in Medievalist Video Games: A Response to Karl Fugelso’s ‘Manifesto‘ by Carol L. Robinson, The Year’s Work in Medievalism (2013)
- Place and Time: Medievalism and Making Race by Helen Young, The Year’s Work in Medievalism (2013)
Other Recent Blog Entries and Articles
This is a developing list of works not featured in one of the journal or blog publications listed further below, organized in publication order. “Recent” has been limited to six years ago or sooner (2012-2017). For a significantly more comprehensive list, see Julie Orlemanski and Jonthan Hsy’s Race and Medieval Studies: A Partial Bibliography.
- The Alt-Right Is Taking Over Renaissance Fairs by Kelly Weill (Daily Beast, July 27, 2018)
- Yes, There Were People of Color in Pre-Modern Europe: A Conversation with @MedievalPOC, an Activist Using Social Media to Change How We See Color in the Past by David M. Perry (Pacific Standard, December 18, 2017)
- How Hate Groups Are Hijacking Medieval Symbols While Ignoring the Facts Behind Them by Becky Little (History, December 18, 2017)
- We Must Protect Our History from White Supremacists by Brynn Tannehill (Huffinton Post, October 25, 2017)
- Where Do We Go from Here? by Helen Young (September 28, 2017)
- Making the Invisible Visible by Kisha Tracy and Katharine Covino (September 27, 2017)
- The Virgin at Chartres, White Supremacy, and Medieval Studies by Marian, Mostly Medieval: Images and Reflections (September 20, 2017)
- Medieval Studies in the Age of Trump by Maggie Williams, Material Collective (September 20, 2017)
- Milo and the “Livelier Style” by David M. Perry, How did we get into this mess? (September 19, 2017)
- What’s with Nazis and Knights? by Bryan William Van Norden, Huffington Post (September 19, 2017)
- A Schism in Medieval Studies, for All to See by Nick Roll, Inside Higher Ed (September 19, 2017)
- What the article didn’t include: on whiteness, medieval studies, and the adulation of creeps by Karl Steel, Medieval Karl (September 19, 2017)
- A Debate About White Supremacy and Medieval Studies Exposes Deep Rifts in the Field by Nell Gluckman, The Chronicle of Higher Education (September 18, 2017)
- On the Media: Nazis and Medieval Studies by David M. Perry, How did we get into this mess? (September 18, 2017)
- How to Signal That You’re a Bully by Dr. Virago, Quod She 2.0 (September 18, 2017)
- Whose Job Is It to Support a Harassed Scholar? by Donna Zuckerberg and Sarah E. Bond (September 15, 2017)
- See Something, Say Something by Richard Utz (September 15, 2017)
- Hold My Mead: A Bibliography for Historians Hitting Back at White Supremacy by Sarah Emily Bond (September 10, 2017)
- What to do When Nazis Are Obsessed with Your Field by David M. Perry, Pacific Standard (September 6, 2017)
- DIVERSIFYING SASLC by Brandon W. Hawk (August 3, 2017)
- Medievalists, Recoiling from White Supremacy, Try to Diversity the Field by J. Clara Chan, Chronicle of Higher Education (July 16, 2017)
- Race, Gender, Academia, and the Tactics of Digital Online Harassment by Dorothy Kim, Society for Classical Studies Newsletter (Medieval Studies and Harassment, September 2017)
- Academic Outrage: When the Culture Wars Go Digital by Tressie McMillan Cottom, tressiemc: some of us are brave (July 7, 2017)
- The Crusades All Over Again: Obama, ISIS, and Medieval Metaphors after 9/11 by Brian Johnsrud, The Year’s Work in Medievalism (2016)
- Racial Dynamics in the Medieval Literature Classroom by Jonathan Hsy, What Is Racial Difference? (January 21, 2016)
- Making Race Matter in the Middle Ages by Eileen Joy (April 18, 2015)
- Taking a Magnifying Glass to the Brown Faces in Medieval Art by Gene Demby, Code Switch: Race and Identity Remixed (December 13, 2013)
Special Issues & Running Features
- Putting Iberia in the Middle by Shamma Boyarin (March 17, 2018)
- Dear Fellow Iberianists: Where Are We? — Part Two by Chad Leahy (March 15, 2018)
- Dear Fellow Iberianists: Where Are We? by Chad Leahy (February 15, 2018)
- Antiracist Medievalisms: Lessons from Chinese Exclusion by Jonathan Hsy (February 16, 2018)
- 4 Thoughts about Vulnerability and Community by J. J. Cohen (September 20, 2017)
- In Support of Dorothy Kim by the ITM Bloggers (September 17, 2017)
- Medievalfail by Helen Young (August 31, 2017)
- Teaching Medieval Studies in a Time of White Supremacy by Dorothy Kim (August 28, 2017)
- Decentering Medieval Studies by Shamma Boyarin (August 7, 2018)
- On Pushback, Progress and Promise by J J Cohen (July 19, 2017)
- Whiteness in Medieval Studies Workshop: A Reflection of Emotional Labor by Shokoofeh Rajabzadeh (June 28, 2017)
- #MoreVoices: Citation, Inclusion, and Working Together by Jonathan Hsy (June 13, 2017)
- White Nationalism and the Ethics of Medieval Studies by Sierra Lomuto (December 5, 2016)
- Re-making the Middle Ages by Helen Young (August 21, 2014)
- Divergent Bodies and Medieval Studies by Dorothy Kim (August 20, 2014)
- Diversity and #medievaltwitter by Michelle R. Warren (August 18, 2014)
The Public Medievalist Special Focus: Race, Racism, and the Middle Ages (Ed. Paul B. Sturtevant)
- Introduction: Race, Racism, and the Middle Ages: Tearing Down the “Whites Only” Medieval World by Paul B. Sturtevant — Introducing a new Public Medievalist series: taking on the white-supremacist ideas of the medieval past, and exploring the stories of people of color in the Middle Ages.
- Part I: A Brief History of a Terrible Idea: The “Dark Enlightenment” by Dr. Dark Age — White supremacists promote a bizarre theory: that the Enlightenment was the real “Dark Ages”.
- Part II: A Vile Love Affair: Right Wing Nationalism and the Middle Ages by Andrew B. R. Elliott — Right wing nationalists since Hitler have had a love affair with the Middle Ages. Why is their twisted version of the past on the rise again?
- Part III: “Race” in the Trenches: Anglo-Saxons, Ethnicity, and the Misuse of the Medieval Past by James M. Harland — Hitler had a crack archaeology unit. Racist nationalists have used medieval archaeology to prop up their worldview—but modern scholars are knocking out their supports.
- Part IV: Is “Race” Real? by Paul B. Sturtevant — Spoiler Alert: no. Everything you’ve been taught about “race” is is completely made up. Here’s how we know…
- Part V: To Russia, With Love: Courting a New Crusade by Dr. Dark Age — How “civilizational conservatives” want Trump and Putin to start a new Crusade.
- Part VI: Were Medieval People Racist? by Paul B. Sturtevant — Were medieval people racist? You might think the answer is a simple “yes!”, but it’s far more complicated than that…
- Part VII: Where were the Middle Ages? by Marianne O’Doherty — A whites-only view of the Middle Ages needs a Europe-only Middle Ages to exist. Let’s pull that apart, shall we?
- Part VIII: A Wonder of the Multicultural Medieval World: The Tabula Rogeriana by Paul B. Sturtevant — The greatest map possibly ever created was made by an Arab Muslim refugee working for a French-Norse king of Sicily on a giant silver disc in the twelfth century. It is one of the multicultural wonders of the world.
- Part IX: Finding Islamic Culture in a Christian Space by Clare Vernon — When Christians and Muslims often lived side-by-side, their cultures and religions sometimes blended into one another, even in their houses of worship.
- Part X: The Poet of the Mediterranean: Ibn Hamdis by Luca Asmonti — Ibn Hamdis was one of the great poets of the Mediterranean: a Arab-Sicilian whose haunting, enchanting verses show the interconnectedness of the human experience.
- Part XI: Where Do the “White Middle Ages” Come From? by Helen Young — We have explored the vile effects of the “whites-only” Middle Ages, but how did the Middle Ages get linked with racism?
- Part XII: Miraculous Bleach and Giant Feet: Were Medieval People Racist? II by Dr. Dark Age — Monsters with no heads, grey aliens, and morphing babies can tell us a lot about medieval racism.
- Part XIII: Feeling ‘British’ by Eric Weiskott — What does “British” mean? Who gets to call themselves “British”? This conflict has roots leading back to King Arthur, Merlin, and some of the earliest inhabitants of this sceptered isle.
- Part XIV: Recovering a “Lost” Medieval Africa: Interview with Chapurukha Kusimba, Part I by Paul B. Sturtevant — During the Middle Ages, Africa wasn’t in a “dark age”; it was linked to an emerging global world. Special interview with African Anthropologist Chapurukha Kusimba, part I.
- Part XV: Cupid at the Castle: Romance, Medievalism, and Race at Atlanta’s Rhodes Hall by Richard Utz — In Atlanta, you can get married in a beautiful, fairytale castle: Rhodes Hall. But the backdrop of all those wedding photos holds a complex, racist history.
- Part XVI: Who Built Africa? by Paul B. Sturtevant — Racist colonialists needed African civilizations not to have been built by Africans to justify their plunder of the continent. Continuing our special interview with Professor Chapurukha Kusimba.
- Part XVII: Uncovering the African Presence in Medieval Europe by Adam Simmons — No Africans in medieval Europe? Tell that to the King of Nubia, who at the beginning of the 13th century took the most epic pilgrimage possible.
- Part XVIII: The Mystery of Stephen the African by Sihong Lin — How common was it for Africans to live in medieval Europe? Apparently, very!
- Part XIX: “Pizzagate” and the Nocturnal Ritual Fantasy: Imaginary Cults, Fake News, and Real Violence by Michael Barbezat — The “Pizzagate” conspiracy wasn’t a flash in the pan. It is part of a tradition of “nocturnal ritual fantasies” that seek to create a fundamentally persecuting society, a tradition that had origins in the medieval persecutions of heretics, Jews and Templars.
- Part XX: East Africa: Five Million Years of History by Paul B. Sturtevant — How can we learn more about the long, long history of Africa? And what might it have to teach us? The final part of our interview with Professor Chapurukha Kusimba.
- Introduction: Jews, Anti-Semitism and the Middle Ages by Paul B. Sturtevant — Introducing a topical thread in our series on all aspects of medieval anti-Jewish prejudice and violence.
- Part XXI: Anti-Semitism Is Older Than You Think by Dr. Dark Age — Anti-Jewish hate didn’t begin with the Nazis, the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, or even the Middle Ages. Its roots are nearly 2000 years old.
- Part XXII: A Tale of Two Europes: Jews in the Medieval World by Dr. Dark Age — Anti-Semitism was disturbingly common in the Middle Ages. But there were some places in the Middle Ages where Jews not only survived, but thrived.
- Part XXIII: The Importance of Being Absent by Richard Cole — Medieval Scandinavia was riddled with anti-Semitic imagery. Odd thing though: no Jews ever lived there.
- Part XXIV: “Bad Hombres”: How to Hate Someone You’ve Never Met by Richard Cole — It’s always easier to hate someone you’ve never met. That’s as true for medieval antisemitism as it is for contemporary British and US politics.
- Part XXV: “Anti-Semitism” Before “Semites”: The Risks and Rewards of Anachronism by Matthew Chalmers — Did you know that the word “anti-Semitism” didn’t exist before 1879? If that’s true, how can we talk about anti-Semitism in the Middle Ages at all?
- Part XXVI: Game of Thrones’ Racism Problem by Helen Young — Game of Thrones doesn’t just have a “diversity problem,” it has a racism problem.
- Part XXVII: The Sainted Toddler Who Sparked a Pogrom by Bianca Lopez — Simon of Trent: a medieval object lesson in how rumors and propaganda can spread hate like wildfire.
- Part XXVIII: Resisting the Anti-Semitic Crusade by Paul B. Sturtevant — The First Crusade saw a wave of vicious anti-Semitic attacks engulf Europe. But there were some who stood up and said no.
- Part XXIX: Leaving “Medieval” Charlottesville by Paul B. Sturtevant — A call to action in the wake of Charlottesville to re-enactors, LARPers, and all who enjoy the Middle Ages casually.
- Part XXX: Perfect Victims: 1096 and 2017 by Jeremy DeAngelo — The victims of oppression do not need to be “perfect” in order to deserve empathy, rights, and justice. As true in 1096 as it is today.
- Part XXXI: Deggendorf, and the Long History of its Destructive Myth by Richard Utz — One sleepy German town has a dark secret that links medieval Jews, the Nazis, and Pope Benedict: a deeply anti-Semitic Catholic ritual only abandoned in 1993.
- Part XXXII: The Arc of Jewish Life in the Middle Ages by Robert Chazan
- Part XXXIII: The View from the Road: Were Medieval People Racist? III by James Hill
- Part XXXIV: The Birth of a National Disgrace: Medievalism and the KKK by Amy S. Kaufman
- Part XXXV: Race in a Song of Ice and Fire: Medievalism Posing as Authenticity by Shiloh Carroll
- Part XXXVI: Race: the Original Sin of the Fantasy Genre by Paul B. Sturtevant
- Part XXXVII: Were Medieval People Racist? IV: Race, Religion, and Travel by James Hill
- Part XXXVIII: The Virgin Mary: Beautiful and Black? by Sarah Randles
- Part XXXIX: Schrödinger’s Medievalisms by Paul B. Sturtevant
- Part XXXX: Race, Racism and the Middle Ages: Looking Back, Looking Forward by Paul B. Sturtevant
- Part XLI: Not a Good Look: The SCA Swastika Incident by Ken Mondschein
- Part XLII: How The Last Jedi Outfoxes the Alt-Right by Asa Mittman
- Part XLIII: The Medieval Problem with “Anglo-American” Sheriffs by Ken Mondschein
Postmedieval 6.1: Making Race Matter in the Middle Ages (Ed. Cord J. Whitaker) Spring 2015
- Editor’s Introduction: Race-ing the dragon: the Middle Ages, Race and Trippin’ into the Future by Cord J. Whitaker
- Race, Sex, Slavery: Reading Fanon with Aucassin et Nicolette by Robert Sturges
- On Firm Carthaginian Ground: Ethnic Boundary Fluidity and Chaucer’s Dido by Randy P. Schiff
- Are the ‘Monstrous Races’ Races? by Asa Simon Mittman
- Making Whiteness Matter: The King of Tars by Jamie Friedman
- From the Knight’s Tale to The Two Noble Kinsmen: Rethinking Race, Class and Whiteness in Romance by Dennis Austin Britton
- ‘The Last Syllable of Modernity’: Chaucer in the Caribbean by Michelle R. Warren
- Race as Sedimented History by Sara Ahmed
- Race, Travel, Time, Heritage by Jeffrey Jerome Cohen and Karl Steel
- Erratum: Humanism, Philology and the Medievalist by Seth Lerer
Postmedieval 5.3: The Holocaust and the Middle Ages (Eds. Hannah Johnson and Nina Caputo) September, 2014
- Editors’ Introduction: The Middle Ages and the Holocaust: Medieval Anti-Judaism in the Crucible of Modern Thought by Hannah Johnson and Nina Caputo
- Exegetical History: Nazis at the Round Table by Martin Shichtman and Laurie A. Finke
- ‘Modern and Genuine Mediaevalism’: Guido Kisch’s Romance with the German Middle Ages by Mitchell B. Hart
- Defending the West: Cultural Racism and Pan-Europeanism on the Far-Right by Daniel Wollenberg
- Jean-Claude Milner: Remarks on the Name Jew and the Universal trans. by Robert S. Kawashima
- ‘The History of an Incorrect Term’: Agamben, Etymology and the Medieval History of the Holocaust by Heather Blurton
- One or Several Jews? The Jewish Massed Body in Old Norse Literature by Richard Cole
- Response Essay: Ethics and the Voices of the Past by Fred Evans